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Vanilla Beans

Rich, Delicate, Creamy, Floral, Spicy, Sweet, Sticky

Vanilla is one of the most popular, yet expensive flavoring agents available worldwide. 

Growing vanilla is truly labor intensive.

Each orchid must be hand pollinated by farmers who carefully transfer the pollen from the anther to the stigma of the female flowers, which may take up to 18 months to first appear.

 

Vanilla Flower

The vanilla flower has a very short life span (~12 hours) and growers have to inspect the fields often for open flowers to pollinate.

Vanilla beans then take weeks to mature, and months to ripen and cure until they are ready (1).

 

Vanilla Flower

Benefits:  Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anticancer

Antioxidant: Vanilla has been recognized for its antioxidant potential as well as its free radical scavenging activity (2-3).

Vanilla has been reported to protect the skin against free radical damage (4).

 

Antibacterial: Vanillin, the major flavor compound in vanilla has shown antibacterial action against Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua (5).

Vanilla extract has been shown to inhibit bacterial quorum sensing and may prevent bacterial pathogenesis (6).

Quorum sensing is a form of communication that allows bacteria to talk to each other and coordinate their behavior- i.e. to figure out where food sources are, decide where to live, defense strategies and when to attack- i.e. infect!

 

Antifungal: Vanillin has antifungal activity against the diseases causing yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (7).

 

Anticancer: Vanillin has been shown to induced apoptosis (kill cancer cells), inhibit angiogenesis (blood flow to tumors) and suppress cancer cell migration and invasiveness in cell culture experiments (8-10).

 

References

1) Vanilla planifolia – An Adventure in Pollination. The McAllen International Orchid Society Journal. 2009 May 10(5), pp. 2-6.

2) A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Jun;59(4):299-326.

3) Studies on the antioxidant activities of natural vanilla extract and its constituent compounds through in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 19;55(19):7738-43.

4) Use of a composition containing a vanilla extract to protect the skin against superoxide radicals or to limit the appearance of sunburn cells. French patent FR 2837384.

5) Mode of antimicrobial action of vanillin against Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Listeria innocua. J Appl Microbiol. 2004; 97:104-113.

6) Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006 Jun;42(6):637-41.

7) In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and vanillin against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.Can J Microbiol 1982; 28:1235-1241.

8) Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 induced by vanillin. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009 Aug;33(2):155-60.

9) Vanillin suppresses metastatic potential of human cancer cells through PI3K inhibition and decreases angiogenesis in vivo. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Apr 22;57(8):3055-63.

10) Vanillin suppresses in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of mouse breast cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005 May;25(1):57-65.

Lavender with bees

Organic and Wild Harvested Ingredients

Organically grown plants, including herbs, flowers, nuts and seeds have higher concentrations of beneficial antioxidants, lower concentrations of heavy metals and less pesticide residues, compared to conventionally grown plants (1-6).   

 

What are Pesticides? 

  • Pesticides are used to kill, repel or control certain forms of animals, plants, insects, fungi or microorganisms that are considered to be pests.

  • Pesticides include rodenticides for killing mice and other rodents, herbicides for destroying unwanted plants, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fungicides to prevent the growth of mold and disinfectants prevent the spread of bacteria (7).

 

Pesticide Spraying


Why Should I Avoid Pesticides? 

  • Pesticides are designed to cause damage to living organisms. 

  • Pesticide exposure can directly affect genetic material, causing damage to DNA and increase the risk of many different types of cancer, including prostate cancer (8), leukaemia (9) and brain cancer (10).  

  • There is a growing amount of evidence that exposure to pesticides can increases the risk of disease, including diabetes (11) and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (12) and Alzheimer's disease (13).  

  • There is circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and accelerated aging (14).

 

How Do I Avoid Pesticides?

  • Pesticide residues are found throughout the environment and have been detected in the urine of 70-90% of children and adults tested (15-17). 

  • In plants sprayed with pesticides, residue on peels and external bits are used to make essential oils so pesticides may become concentrated during processing.

  • The good news is that eating an organic diet for just 5-7 days has been shown to significantly reduce pesticide levels in children and adults (18-21).

  • Pesticides can also be absorbed through the skin (22-24), so you can reduce your exposure by choosing organic ingredients for your skin care, hair care and cleaning products.

 


We care about the health of our clients, the farmers who grow and care for the plants and the artisans who process and extract our fine plant compounds. 

We only use organic and wild ingredients in our blends to minimize exposure to harmful pesticides.

 

 


References

  1. Barański M, Srednicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, Sanderson R, Stewart GB, Benbrook C, Biavati B, Markellou E, Giotis C, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Rembiałkowska E, Skwarło-Sońta K, Tahvonen R, Janovská D, Niggli U, Nicot P, Leifert C. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):794-811.
  2. Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ, Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C, Olkin I, Bravata DM. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):348-66.Roszko M, Szterk A, Szymczyk K, Waszkiewicz-Robak B. PAHs , PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2012 Mar;89(3):389-400.
  3. Roszko M, Szterk A, Szymczyk K, Waszkiewicz-Robak B. PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2012 Mar;89(3):389-400.
  4. Tsatsakis AM, Tsakiris IN, Tzatzarakis MN, Agourakis ZB, Tutudaki M, Alegakis AK. Three-year study of fenthion and dimethoate pesticides in olive oil from organic and conventional cultivationFood Addit Contam. 2003 Jun;20(6):553-9.
  5. Tascone O, Roy C, Filippi JJ, Meierhenrich UJ. Use, analysis, and regulation of pesticides in natural extracts, essential oils, concretes, and absolutes. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014 Feb;406(4):971-80. Review.
  6. Tascone O, Shirshikova M, Roy C, Meierhenrich UJ. Pesticide determination in rose petals using dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometryAnal Bioanal Chem. 2014 Oct 26.
  7. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Pesticides. October 28, 2014. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/pesticides/Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  8. Koutros S, Beane Freeman LE, Lubin JH, Heltshe SL, Andreotti G, Barry KH, DellaValle CT, Hoppin JA, Sandler DP, Lynch CF, Blair A, Alavanja MC. Risk of total and aggressive prostate cancer and pesticide use in the Agricultural Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Jan 1;177(1):59-74.
  9. Van Maele-Fabry G, Lantin AC, Hoet P, Lison D. Childhood leukaemia and parental occupational exposure to pesticides: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun;21(6):787-809.
  10. Van Maele-Fabry G, Hoet P, Lison D. Parental occupational exposure to pesticides as risk factor for brain tumors in children and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisEnviron Int. 2013 Jun;56:19-31.
  11. Lasram MM, Dhouib IB, Annabi A, El Fazaa S, Gharbi N. A review on the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin resistance induced by organophosphorus pesticidesToxicology. 2014 Aug 1;322:1-13.
  12. Van Maele-Fabry G, Hoet P, Vilain F, Lison D. Occupational exposure to pesticides and Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studiesEnviron Int. 2012 Oct 1;46:30-43.
  13. Richardson JR, Roy A, Shalat SL, von Stein RT, Hossain MM, Buckley B, Gearing M, Levey AI, German DC. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Mar;71(3):284-90.
  14. Mostafalou S, Abdollahi M. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Apr 15;268(2):157-77.
  15. Barr DB, Bravo R, Weerasekera G, Caltabiano LM, Whitehead RD Jr, Olsson AO, Caudill SP, Schober SE, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ, Jackson RJ, Needham LL. Concentrations of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in the U.S. populationEnviron Health Perspect. 2004 Feb;112(2):186-200.
  16. Barr DB, Olsson AO, Wong LY, Udunka S, Baker SE, Whitehead RD, Magsumbol MS, Williams BL, Needham LL. Urinary concentrations of metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in the general U.S. population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun;118(6):742-8.
  17. Oulhote Y, Bouchard MF. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and behavioral problems in Canadian children. MF. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Nov-Dec;121(11-12):1378-84.
  18. Curl CL, Fenske RA, Elgethun K. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional dietsEnviron Health Perspect. 2003 Mar;111(3):377-82.
  19. Lu C, Toepel K, Irish R, Fenske RA, Barr DB, Bravo R. Organic diets significantly lower children's dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticidesEnviron Health Perspect. 2006 Feb;114(2):260-3.
  20. Lu C, Barr DB, Pearson MA, Waller LA. Dietary intake and its contribution to longitudinal organophosphorus pesticide exposure in urban/suburban childrenEnviron Health Perspect. 2008 Apr;116(4):537-42.
  21. Oates L, Cohen M, Braun L, Schembri A, Taskova R. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic dietEnviron Res. 2014 Jul;132:105-11.
  22. Moore CA, Wilkinson SC, Blain PG, Dunn M, Aust GA, Williams FM. Percutaneous absorption and distribution of organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos) following dermal exposure and decontamination scenarios using in vitro human skin model. Toxicol Lett. 2014 Aug 17;229(1):66-72.
  23. Tian JN, Yiin LM. Urinary metabolites of DEET after dermal application on child and adult subjectsJ Environ Health. 2014 Jan-Feb;76(6):162-9.
  24. Alikhan FS, Maibach H. Topical absorption and systemic toxicity. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2011 Sep;30(3):175-86.


Cannabis Hemp Seed Oil (Cannabis Sativa

Cannabis Seed Oil or Hemp Seed Oil has a long history of safe and effective use.  Hemp Seed Oil is a rich vibrant green and is packed with essential nutrients, including fatty acids, vitamins, terpenes and antioxidants (1-7). Hemp seed oil has many benefits for our skin:  

1. Strengthens Skin Barrier

  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 56% linoleic acid (1), the major essential n-6 fatty acid found naturally in our skin (8). Linoleic acid is the natural precursor for ceramide, a bioactive lipid that plays a role in keeping our skin barrier firm, smooth and healthy (8). 
  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 5% γ-linolenic acid (1). Dietary supplementation with Hemp Seed Oil and other γ-linolenic rich oils such as Evening Primrose Oil, can improve the skin barrier and significantly alleviate symptoms of eczema, including dry skin and itchiness (9-11).

Hemp Seed Oil keeps our skin firm, smooth and healthy. 

 

2. Calms Redness & Irritation

  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 16% linolenic acid (1), an essential omega 3 fatty acid that calms redness and irritation (8).
  • Hemp Seed Oil also contains 5% γ-linolenic acid (1), a unique n-6 fatty acid with potent anti-inflammatory activity (12).
  • Hemp Seed Oil contains β-Caryophyllene (1), a compound with anti-inflammatory activity. β-Caryophyllene is a functional agonist of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). CB2 receptors are expressed on skin cells and immune cells and play an important role in regulating inflammation (13). 
  • Hemp Seed Oil contains small amounts of β-Myrcene (1), a terpene also found in Mango, Hops and Lemongrass with potent anti-inflammatory activity (13). 

 

β-Caryophyllene is the first compound shown to interact with cannabinoid receptors in the body beyond the cannabis genus (13).

 

 

 

3. Improves Dry Skin

  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 5% γ-linolenic acid (1).
  • Dietary supplementation with Hemp Seed Oil and other γ-linolenic rich oils such as Evening Primrose Oil, can significantly alleviate symptoms of eczema, including dry skin and itchiness (9-11).
  • γ-linolenic acid-rich cream has been shown to alleviate dry and itchy skin in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis (14).

4. Anti-Acne Potential 

  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 5% γ-linolenic acid (1). 
  • A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were given either an omega-3 fatty acid supplement (2,000 mg of EPA and DHA), γ-linolenic acid (400 mg γ-linolenic acid), or control. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linolenic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linolenic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients (10).
  • Hemp Seed Oil contains 11% oleic acid (1), an omega-9 fatty acid found naturally in the protective outer layer of the skin. 
  • Oleic acid has antimicrobial activity (15) and can increase the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin-2, which can kill acne-causing bacteria (16).

5. Antioxidant Activity

  • Hemp Seed Oil also contains vitamin E, β-sitosterol, phytol and campesterol, compounds with potent antioxidant activity (1).
Note: Cannabis Hemp Seed Oil may contain trace amounts of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (1).

Hemp Seed Oil is rich in key nutrients that play a critical role in maintaining skin barrier, regulating inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress and damage.

 

Hemp Seed Oil is beneficial for treating dry skin, eczema and acne.

  

hemp seed oilll

 

 

 

References

1. Leizer, et al. The Composition of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Potential as an Important Source of NutritionJ Nutraceut, Funct Med Food. 2000;2(4):35-53.

2. Callaway. Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview. Euphytica. 2004;140:65-72.

3. Nissen, et al. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.). Fitoterapia. 2010 Jul;81(5):413-9.

4. Chen, et al. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China. J Diet Suppl. 2010 Jun;7(2):117-29.

5. Chen, et al. The isolation and identification of two compounds with predominant radical scavenging activity in hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.). Food Chem. 2012 Sep 15;134(2):1030-7.

6. Porto, et al. Potential Oil Yield, Fatty Acid Composition, and Oxidation Stability of the Hempseed Oil from Four Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars. J Diet Suppl. 2014 Feb 19.

7. Montserrat, et al. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil: Analytical and Phytochemical Characterization of the Unsaponifiable Fraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 5;62(5):1105-10.

8. McCusker, et al. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):440-51.

9. Callaway, et al. Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005 Apr;16(2):87-94.

10. Jung, et al. Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acid and gamma-linolenic Acid on Acne Vulgaris: A Randomised, Double-blind, Controlled Trial. Acta Derm Venereol. 2014 Feb 18.

11. Kawamura, et al. Dietary supplementation of gamma-linolenic acid improves skin parameters in subjects with dry skin and mild atopic dermatitis. J Oleo Sci. 2011;60(12):597-607. 

12. Kapoor, et al. Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006 Dec;7(6):531-4. 

13. Russo. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1344-64. 

14. Chen, et al. Therapeutic effect of topical gamma-linolenic acid on refractory uremic pruritus. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Jul;48(1):69-76.

15. Chen et al. An innate bactericidal oleic acid effective against skin infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a therapy concordant with evolutionary medicine. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Apr;21(4):391-9.

16. Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Zhang L, Zouboulis CC, Gallo RL, Huang CM. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Apr;130(4):985-94.

Images from pixabay

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

 

“Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.” 

-Albert Einstein

 

Interacting with nature is important for our overall well-being.

In Japan, Shinrin-Yoku or Forest Bathing is a program that encourages people to get out into nature, to literally bathe the mind and body in greenspace. More broadly, it is defined as “taking in, in all of our senses, the forest atmosphere.”

Researchers in Japan have collected psychological and physiological data on over 800 adults who have engaged in shinrin-yoku. These studies have confirmed that spending time within a forest setting can reduce psychological stress, depressive symptoms and hostility, while at the same time improving sleep and increasing both vigor and feelings of liveliness (1-7).   

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

How do you interact with nature when you can't go outside? 

 

    1. Bring Nature to You
    2. Look at Images of Nature
    3. Play Nature Themed Video Games
    4. Listen to Nature
    5. Smell Nature

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

1. Bring Nature to You

Having live plants and flowers in your home and office is beneficial for your health.  

Even just having a plant in your room may improve your mood.  For instance, patients in a hospital room with indoor plants reported less stress than those in the control condition (8-10). Decorating offices with plants has also been shown to decrease levels of discomfort such as cough and fatigue and improve health (11).

These effects may in part be caused by the plants removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air (12). VOCs are emitted from materials such as carpets, wallpaper, office chairs, and electronic equipment, with highest emissions from new products. Several ornamental potted plant species have the ability to absorb VOCs from indoor air and reduce exposure to the dangerous chemicals (13).

Interacting with nature also helps you focus and brings you into the present moment. When you look at a plant or smell an aromatic flower, your mind is drawn into the pleasant experience.  

When your thoughts focus on nature, your mind is no longer filled with the chattering in your head- no more worrying about the past or anticipating the future.

For a few moments, your thoughts are clear.  

Touch the plants. Smell them. Talk to them. Take pictures and videos of plants and flowers and share them. 

Try this: 14 Houseplants for People with No Green Thumb 

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

2. Look at Images of Nature

Looking at pictures and videos of nature can help lower blood pressure and relieve anxiety (10, 14). 

Keep in mind that this can be very individual- you may find images of oceans and water very calming, or you may respond better to images of trees and forests. 

Choose images that are meaningful and beautiful to you. 

Try this: Made a Pinterest Board and Collect Pictures of Nature

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

3. Play Nature Themed Video Games

In a preliminary study, exposure to a virtual natural environment helped individuals recover from a stressful challenge better than the control group (15). These results suggest that spending time is a virtual forest could help enhance your calm.

Do you have a favorite nature inspired game you play?  

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

4. Listen to Nature

Listening to pleasant nature sounds can help lower blood pressure, relieve anxiety and reduce agitation levels (16-18). 

Try This: Listen to a luscious liquid waterfall in Ireland 

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

5. Smell Nature

Aromatherapy is a simple, effective and enjoyable method of stress relief.

Terpenes are small flavor compounds you can smell. Examples include linalool from lavender and limonene in citrus rind. Terpenes can enter into your body as you inhale them (19-20). Terpenes have many health benefits and smelling them can help enhance calmness and improve mood (21).

Lavender essential oil has a rich floral scent, which can improve states of calm and relaxation (22-27). Smelling lavender has been shown to significantly decrease blood pressure and heart rate, and reduce levels of stress hormones, including cortisol (24). The aroma of lavender has also been shown to increase the power of theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) brain activities, which correspond with a state of deep relaxation (25). 

Sweet orange essential oil has a fresh, sweet and citrusy scent and smelling sweet orange can reduce anxiety, improve mood and increase calmness (27-29). 

Try This: Break into the peel of an orange, inhale deeply and smell the terpenes!   

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

Interacting with nature promotes a state of calm and relaxation.

 

How do you interact with nature when you can't get outside?   

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

 

“I took a walk in the woods and came out taller than the trees.” 

–Henry David Thoreau

 

Ryz Remi Spirit Pacific Park Forest University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada

References

All photos from this series taken by Penelope Slack

1. Mao GX, Lan XG, Cao YB, Chen ZM, He ZH, Lv YD, Wang YZ, Hu XL, Wang GF, Yan J. Effects of short-term forest bathing on human health in a broad-leaved evergreen forest in Zhejiang Province, China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012 Jun;25(3):317-24.

2. Tsunetsugu Y, Park BJ, Ishii H, Hirano H, Kagawa T, Miyazaki Y. Physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest) in an old-growth broad leaf forest in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007 Mar;26(2):135-42.

3. Park BJ, Tsunetsugu Y, Kasetani T, Hirano H, Kagawa T, Sato M, Miyazaki Y. Physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest)--using salivary cortisol and cerebral activity as indicators. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007 Mar;26(2):123-8.

4. Morita E, Fukuda S, Nagano J, Hamajima N, Yamamoto H, Iwai Y, Nakashima T, Ohira H, Shirakawa T. Psychological effects of forest environments on healthy adults: Shinrin-yoku (forest-air bathing, walking) as a possible method of stress reduction. Public Health. 2007 Jan;121(1):54-63.

5. Tsunetsugu Y, Park BJ, Lee J, Kagawa T, Miyazaki Y.  [Psychological relaxation effect of forest therapy: results of field experiments in 19 forests in Japan involving 228 participants]. Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2011 Sep;66(4):670-6. Japanese.

6. Miyazaki Y, Ikei H, Song C. Forest medicine research in Japan. Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2014;69(2):122-35. Review.

7. Berman MG, Kross E, Krpan KM, Askren MK, Burson A, Deldin PJ, Kaplan S, Sherdell L, Gotlib IH, Jonides J. Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. J Affect Disord. 2012 Nov;140(3):300-5.

8. Dijkstra K, Pieterse ME, Pruyn A. Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: the mediating role of perceived attractiveness. Prev Med. 2008 Sep;47(3):279-83.

9. Lee MS, Lee J, Park BJ, Miyazaki Y. Interaction with indoor plants may reduce psychological and physiological stress by suppressing autonomic nervous system activity in young adults: a randomized crossover study. J Physiol Anthropol. 2015 Apr 28;34:21.

10. Beukeboom CJ, Langeveld D, Tanja-Dijkstra K. Stress-reducing effects of real and artificial nature in a hospital waiting room. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Apr;18(4):329-33.

11. Fjeld T, Veiersted B, Sandvik L, Riise G, Levy F (1998) The effect of indoor foliage plants on health and discomfort symptoms among office workers. Indoor Built Environ 7:204–209.

12. Dela Cruz M, Christensen JH, Thomsen JD, Müller R. Can ornamental potted plants remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air? A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Dec;21(24):13909-28.

13. Yang DS, Pennisi SV, Son KC, Kays SJ (2009) Screening indoor plants for volatile organic pollutant removal efficiency. Hortscience 44: 1377–1381

14. Tsutsumi M, Nogaki H, Shimizu Y, Stone TE, Kobayashi T. Individual reactions to viewing preferred video representations of the natural environment: A comparison of mental and physical reactions. Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2016 May 10.

15. Annerstedt M, Jönsson P, Wallergård M, Johansson G, Karlson B, Grahn P, Hansen AM, Währborg P.  Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest--results from a pilot study. Physiol Behav. 2013 Jun 13;118:240-50.

16. Aghaie B, Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, Ebadi A, Moradian ST, Vaismoradi M, Jasper M. Effect of nature-based sound therapy on agitation and anxiety in coronary artery bypass graft patients during the weaning of mechanical ventilation: A randomised clinical trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2014 Apr;51(4):526-38.

17. Saadatmand V, Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, Tadrisi SD, Zayeri F, Vaismoradi M, Jasper M.  Effect of nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Jul;50(7):895-904.

18. Bauer BA, Cutshall SA, Anderson PG, Prinsen SK, Wentworth LJ, Olney TJ, Messner PK, Brekke KM, Li Z, Sundt TM 3rd, Kelly RF, Bauer BA. Effect of the combination of music and nature sounds on pain and anxiety in cardiac surgical patients: a randomized study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):16-23.

19. Falk-Filipsson A, Löf A, Hagberg M, Hjelm EW, Wang Z. d-limonene exposure to humans by inhalation: uptake, distribution, elimination, and effects on the pulmonary function.  J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993; 38: 77–88. 

20. Falk AA, Hagberg MT, Löf AE, Wigaeus-Hjelm EM, Wang ZP. Uptake, distribution and elimination of alpha-pinene in man after exposure by inhalation. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1990 Oct;16(5):372-8.

21. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1344-64.

22. Chen MC, Fang SH, Fang L. The effects of aromatherapy in relieving symptoms related to job stress among nurses. Int J Nurs Pract. 2013 Nov 15.

23. Kim S, Kim HJ, Yeo JS, Hong SJ, Lee JM, Jeon Y. The effect of lavender oil on stress, bispectral index values, and needle insertion pain in volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Sep;17(9):823-6.

24. Kim IH, Kim C, Seong K, Hur MH, Lim HM, Lee MS. Essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:984203.

25. Toda M, Morimoto K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Oct;53(10):964-8.

26. Sayorwan W, Siripornpanich V, Piriyapunyaporn T, Hongratanaworakit T, Kotchabhakdi N, Ruangrungsi N. The effects of lavender oil inhalation on emotional states, autonomic nervous system, and brain electrical activity.  J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Apr;95(4):598-606.

27. Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005 Sep 15;86(1-2):92-5.

28. Goes TC, Antunes FD, Alves PB, Teixeira-Silva F. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Aug;18(8):798-804.

29. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, Pötsch G, Deecke L. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behav. 2000 Oct 1-15;71(1-2):83-6.

Ryz Remi Coconut Oil

 

The aroma of virgin coconut oil is rich, creamy and subtly sweet, with undertones of fresh fruit. 

 

Lactones are the main flavour compounds that provide the coconut aroma.

 δ-octalactone has a fatty coconut aroma, with mild green undertones.

δ-decalactone has a creamy, coconut aroma with slight peach undertones.


    Ryz Remi Coconut Oil

     

    Coconut oil has compounds that contribute a sweet, fruity aroma.

    ethyl decanoate has a sweet apple aroma.

    ethyl acetate has a pleasant fruity odor, similar to pear.

    nonanal smells like citrus peel, with cucumber undertones.

    limonene smells like fresh sweet orange.

      Some compounds provide freshness. 

       

      2-heptanone has fruity, waxy and green notes.

      hexanal smells like freshly cut grass.


         

        Ryz Remi Coconut Oil

         

        coconut

        Delicious coconut.

         

        An aroma that evokes memories of tropical beaches, clear water, lush palm trees and bright sunny skies. 

         

         

        Palm Tree

         

        References

        Santos, J.E.R.. Villarino, B.J.. Zosa, A.R.. Dayrit, F.M.. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Virgin Coconut Oil and their Sensory Attributes. Philippine Journal of Science 140(2) · November 2011. 

        Flavor descriptions obtained from The Good Scents Company

         

        1. Organic Lavender Essential Oil 

        2. Organic Sweet Orange Essential Oil

          

        3. Organic Key Lime Essential Oil

        Key Lime Essential Oil

         

        4. Organic Bergamot Essential Oil

        Bergamot Essential Oil

         

         

        5. Organic Ylang Ylang Essential Oil

        Ylang Ylang Essential Oil

         

         

        References


        1) Chen MC, Fang SH, Fang L. The effects of aromatherapy in relieving symptoms related to job stress among nurses. Int J Nurs Pract. 2013 Nov 15.

        2) Kim S, Kim HJ, Yeo JS, Hong SJ, Lee JM, Jeon Y. The effect of lavender oil on stress, bispectral index values, and needle insertion pain in volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Sep;17(9):823-6.

        3) Kim IH, Kim C, Seong K, Hur MH, Lim HM, Lee MS. Essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:984203.

        4) Toda M, Morimoto K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Oct;53(10):964-8.

        5) Sayorwan W, Siripornpanich V, Piriyapunyaporn T, Hongratanaworakit T, Kotchabhakdi N, Ruangrungsi N. The effects of lavender oil inhalation on emotional states, autonomic nervous system, and brain electrical activity.  J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Apr;95(4):598-606.

        6) Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1344-64.

        7) Goes TC, Antunes FD, Alves PB, Teixeira-Silva F. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Aug;18(8):798-804.

        8) Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005 Sep 15;86(1-2):92-5.

        9) Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, Pötsch G, Deecke L. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behav. 2000 Oct 1-15;71(1-2):83-6.

        10) Spadaro F, Costa R, Circosta C, Occhiuto F. Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil. Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Nov;7(11):1523-6.

        11) Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Bonesi M, Menichini F, Mastellone V, Colica C, Menichini F. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils. J Food Sci. 2012 Jan;77(1):H40-6.

        12) Chaiyana W, Okonogi S. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant. Phytomedicine. 2012 Jun 15;19(8-9):836-9.

        13) Melliou E, Michaelakis A, Koliopoulos G, Skaltsounis AL, Magiatis P.  High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector. Molecules. 2009 Feb 18;14(2):839-49.

        14) Ni CH, Hou WH, Kao CC, Chang ML, Yu LF, Wu CC, Chen C. The anxiolytic effect of aromatherapy on patients awaiting ambulatory surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:927419.

        15) Liu SH, Lin TH, Chang KM. The physical effects of aromatherapy in alleviating work-related stress on elementary school teachers in taiwan. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:853809.

        16) Watanabe E, Kuchta K, Kimura M, Rauwald HW, Kamei T, Imanishi J. Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females. Forsch Komplementmed. 2015;22(1):43-9.  

        17) Navarra M, Mannucci C, Delbò M, Calapai G. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Front Pharmacol. 2015 Mar 2:6:36.

        18) Kim IH, Kim C, Seong K, Hur MH, Lim HM, Lee MS. Essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012. 

        19) Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G. Evaluation of the harmonizing effect of ylang-ylang oil on humans after inhalation. Planta Med. 2004 Jul;70(7):632-6.

        20) Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G. Relaxing effect of ylang ylang oil on humans after transdermal absorption. Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):758-63.

        21) Jung DJ, Cha JY, Kim SE, Ko IG, Jee YS. Effects of Ylang-Ylang aroma on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy men. J Exerc Rehabil. 2013 Apr;9(2):250-5.

        22) Kim IH, Kim C, Seong K, Hur MH, Lim HM, Lee MS. Essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012
         

         

          Shea Butter

        Raw, unrefined Shea Butter is rich in nutrients that protect your skin against dryness, fine lines, inflammation and acne.  

         

        Ryz Remi Day Balm Concentrate

        Hand-whipped raw Shea Butter in our Ryz Rémi Day Balm Concentrate 

           


          1) Shea Butter contains Antioxidants

           

          Antioxidants work by preventing unstable molecules from damaging skin cells.  

          The Shea tree Vitellaria paradoxa is slow-growing and long lived.

          Shea grows wild in the dry savannah regions of Africa and endures extreme heat, drought and wind. 

          In response to the harsh environment, Shea becomes stronger and makes antioxidants to help protect itself against damage.  

          Shea butter from the hottest, driest growing regions has the highest levels of antioxidants- including vitamin E (1) and triterpenoids (2)

          Shea butter is rich in a variety of antioxidants, including vitamin E, triterpenoids and polyphenols that help protect skin against sun damage and premature aging (1-3).  

          Shea butter is rich in polyphenols similar to green tea, including catechins, as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid, compounds with strong antioxidant activity (3).

           

           

          2) Shea Butter Improves Dry Skin

           

          Shea Butter can penetrate deep into the skin layers, leaving skin feeling soft, smooth and supple. Shea butter has been shown to improve dry skin in children with eczema (4).

          Shea Butter re-hydrates dry, chapped skin and diminishes the appearance of fine lines around your eyes, mouth and forehead.  

           

          3) Shea Butter Repairs The Skin Barrier

           

          Shea Butter contains linoleic acid (5), the essential n-6 fatty acid found naturally in the skin barrier (6). Linoleic acid is the natural precursor for ceramide, a bioactive lipid that plays a role in maintaining skin barrier to protect against water loss (6).

           

          4) Shea Butter Calms Inflammation

           

          Shea butter has traditionally been used to calm irritated skin, and has been shown to improve symptoms of eczema (4). Shea butter contains active compounds, including triterpene cinnamates and acetates with anti-inflammatory activity (7).  

          Shea butter extract has been shown to significantly reduce the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in cell culture experiments (8). 

          Shea butter extract is thought to calm inflammation by targeting iNOS and COX-2 signalling pathways (8).

           

           

          5) Shea Butter Helps Fight Acne

           

          Shea butter contains up to 60% oleic acid, an omega-9 fatty acid found naturally in the skin layer with antibacterial activity. Oleic acid can increase the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin-2, which can kill acne-causing bacteria (9).

          Shea butter also contains lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene that has been shown to reduce acne induced inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in sebocytes and skin cells (10). 

          Shea Butter is non-comedogenic and does not clog pores. 

          Ryz Remi Day Balm Concentrate

           Hand-whipped raw Shea Butter in our Ryz Rémi Day Balm Concentrate

           

          References:

          1) Maranz S, Wiesman Z. Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):2934-7.

          2) Akihisa T, Kojima N, Katoh N, Ichimura Y, Suzuki H, Fukatsu M, Maranz S, Masters ET. Triterpene alcohol and fatty acid composition of shea nuts from seven African countries. J Oleo Sci. 2010;59(7):351-60.

          3) Maranz S, Wiesman Z, Garti N. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(21):6268-73.

          4) Gelmetti C, Boralevi F, Seité S, Grimalt R, Humbert P, Luger T, Stalder JF, Taïeb A, Tennstedt D, Garcia Diaz R, Rougier A. Quality of Life of Parents Living with a Child Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis Before and After a 3-Month Treatment with an Emollient. Pediatric Dermatology Vol. 29 No. 6 714–718, 2012

          5) Honfo FG, Akissoe N, Linnemann AR, Soumanou M, Van Boekel MA. Nutritional composition of shea products and chemical properties of shea butter: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(5):673-86.

          6) McCusker MM, Grant-Kels JM. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):440-51.

          7) Akihisa T, Kojima N, Kikuchi T, Yasukawa K, Tokuda H, T Masters E, Manosroi A, Manosroi J. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat. Journal of Oleo Science. 2010;59(6):273–80.

          8) Verma N, Chakrabarti R, Das RH, Gautam HK. Anti-inflammatory effects of shea butter through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the Nf-κB pathway in LPS-activated J774 macrophage cells. J Complement Integr Med. 2012; 9:Article 4.

          9) Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Zhang L, Zouboulis CC, Gallo RL, Huang CM. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Apr;130(4):985-94.

          10) Kwon HH, Yoon JY, Park SY, Min S, Kim YI, Park JY, Lee YS, Thiboutot DM, Suh DH. Activity-guided purification identifies lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, as a therapeutic agent multiple pathogenic factors of acne. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jun;135(6):1491-500.